Financial Glossary – Z
Zaibatsu – a powerful group of giant conglomerates that controlled a significant portion of the Japanese economy until the end of the Second World War. At the end of the war, many of them were dissolved or broken up.
Z bond – a bond that accrues interest added to its principal balance. It is also known as an accrual bond.
Zero Air – ultra-filtered air that contains less than 0.1 parts per million of total hydrocarbons. Some laboratory applications can only work properly in a zero air environment.
Zero Balance Account – a bank account that maintains a zero balance all the time. The only time money goes into the account is when a check is issued – the amount is the same as the amount on the check. As soon as the check is cleared, the account goes back to a zero balance.
Zero-Based Budgeting – a budgeting method in which all expenses start the accounting period at zero – the slate is wiped clean. Every function within a company or organization is analyzed for its needs and costs – from scratch. Zero-based budgeting contrasts with traditional budgeting approaches, in which the previous period’s spending is carried forward.
Zero-Cost Option – a trading strategy in which one option is bought while another one is sold at the same time – they both have equal value. By buying and selling two things with the same value at the same time, they cancel each other out, leaving the trader with a zero balance – hence the name. It is also called zero-cost hedge and risk reversal strategy.
Zero-Coupon Bond – also known as a discount bond, is a bond bought at a price lower than its par value, with the par value repaid when it reaches maturity. This type of bond does not disperse an annual interest payment.
Zero Dollar Contract – a kind of contract where either no money changes hands, or a donation of just one dollar is made. This type of contract is commonly made between government departments and companies.
Zero-Sum Game – a game or business situation where there is one winner and one loser; the winner’s total minus the loser’s total loss equals zero – hence the term ‘zero-sum’. An example could be an arm-wresting contest or game of poker. The opposite is a non-zero sum game. Most business transactions are not zero-sum games, for the simple reason that nobody would enter a zero-sum deal.
ZEW Indicator of Economic Sentiment – a monthly survey of economists and analysts regarding mainly the Germany economy, but also other major economies and regions. ZEW stands for Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (Centre for European Economic Research).
Zip Code – a coding system the US Postal Service uses to locate and route the mail to specific locations. Other English-speaking countries use the terms post code, postal code, or (in India) pin code.
Zombie (computer jargon) – a zombie is either a compromised computer that has been infected with a virus or trojan horse, or the virus itself (or trojan horse itself). In most cases, the owner does not know.
Zombie Bank – a financial institution that is worth less than nothing, but continues operating, mainly because of government support.
Zombie Company – a business that is heavily in debt and is only able to pay the interest on its loans, i.e. it cannot reduce the principle. The term includes companies that were bailed out and would not have survived without help. Also called a zombie firm or living dead.
Zombie Virus – in the world of IT (information technology), a zombie could be a malicious virus, worm, Trojan horse, or any program that infects and takes control of computers and smartphones and gets them to do illegal things. Zombies can cause websites to shut down because they get flooded with visits from zombie computers – infected computers.
Zone Pricing – charging customers different amounts for the same product or service, depending on where they are. In most cases, the seller is taking into account the cost of getting the product to the customer. In other words, the further away the customer is, the more he or she will pay. The USA, for example, may be split into four zones. Customers in the cheapest zone, i.e., the ones nearest the manufacturing facility, pay the least.
Zoning – local government by-laws that define how certain parts of the city may be used, specifically land use. Some areas are residential, while others are destined for agriculture, industry or commerce. The aim of zoning is to make communities as safe as possible, and ensure that growth occurs in an orderly way.
ZZZZ Best – a carpet cleaning company, set up by Barry Minkow in 1982 when he was just sixteen, that was involved in massive amounts of fraud. Minkow was jailed in 1988 and then again in 2011.