What is a Urologist? What They Do, Procedures, and More

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From the ancient practices of analyzing urine by Greek and Egyptian physicians to modern-day medical science, the understanding and treatment of the urinary system have evolved significantly. Today, urology stands as a specialized branch of medicine dedicated to the health of the urinary and reproductive systems. Here’s a detailed look at what urologists do and when it might be necessary to consult one.

What Does a Urologist Do?

A urologist is a medical doctor specializing in diagnosing and treating diseases of both the male and female urinary tracts, as well as disorders related to the male reproductive system. They are skilled in various medical and surgical techniques, from treating urinary tract infections to performing complex surgeries like removing cancerous tumors or clearing blockages in the urinary tract. Urologists work in a range of settings, including hospitals, private clinics, and specialized urology centers.

The urinary tract includes:

  • Kidneys: Organs that filter waste from the blood to create urine.
  • Ureters: Tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • Bladder: The organ that stores urine.
  • Urethra: The tube through which urine exits the body.

For men, urologists also treat conditions related to:

  • Penis: The organ that releases urine and transports sperm.
  • Prostate: A gland located below the bladder that produces seminal fluid.
  • Testicles: Organs located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.

Education and Training of Urologists

Urologists undergo extensive training, starting with a four-year undergraduate degree, followed by four years of medical school. Post-graduation, they complete a 4-5 year residency program in a hospital setting, working alongside experienced urologists to learn surgical techniques and patient care. Some may opt for further specialization through a fellowship program in areas like urologic oncology or female urology. Finally, urologists must pass a specialty certification exam and obtain certification from the American Board of Urology.

Conditions Treated by Urologists

Urologists treat a wide range of conditions affecting the urinary system and male reproductive organs. These include, but are not limited to:

In males:

  • Cancers of the bladder, kidneys, penis, testicles, adrenal, and prostate glands.
  • Prostate gland enlargement.
  • Infertility.
  • Kidney diseases and stones.
  • Urinary tract infections.

In females:

  • Kidney stones.
  • Overactive bladder and urinary incontinence.
  • Bladder prolapse.
  • Cancers of the bladder and kidneys.

In children:

  • Bedwetting.
  • Urinary obstructions.
  • Undescended testicles.

Diagnostic and Surgical Procedures

Urologists employ various diagnostic tests to identify urinary problems, including imaging tests like CT scans, MRI scans, ultrasounds, cystograms, and cystoscopies. They may also perform urodynamic testing to assess bladder function.

Surgical procedures include:

  • Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy for kidney stones.
  • Kidney transplants.
  • Biopsies of the bladder, kidneys, or prostate.
  • Repairs of urinary organs and treatment of cancers, such as cystectomy and prostate surgeries.

When to See a Urologist

While primary care physicians can manage minor urinary issues, more persistent or complex conditions may require a urologist’s expertise. Symptoms that warrant a visit to a urologist include:

  • Blood in urine.
  • Frequent or urgent need to urinate.
  • Pain in the lower back, pelvis, or side.
  • Difficulty urinating or weak urine flow.
  • Erectile dysfunction or reduced libido in men.
  • A lump in the testicle.

Men and women may also consult urologists for fertility concerns or issues related to sexual health and function.


Urologists play a crucial role in diagnosing and treating a wide array of conditions related to the urinary and male reproductive systems. Their expertise in both medical and surgical interventions makes them indispensable in the realm of specialized healthcare. If you’re experiencing symptoms related to these systems, consider consulting a urologist to receive appropriate and specialized care.

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