US mortgage rates: largest one-week drop since last year

In recent weeks, the US mortgage market has experienced a significant shift. The average interest rate on a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage, a benchmark in the industry, has seen a substantial decrease, marking the most significant one-week dip since the previous year. This report delves into the implications of this decline, its impact on the housing market and consumers, and the anticipated future trends.

Sam Khater, Freddie Mac’s chief economist, said: 

“Incoming data show that household debt continues to rise, primarily due to mortgage, credit card and student loan balances.

“Many consumers are feeling strained by the high cost of living, so unless mortgage rates decrease significantly, the housing market will remain stagnant.”

Overview of the Mortgage Rate Decline

The 30-year fixed-rate mortgage interest rate has experienced a significant decrease, falling from an average of 7.76% to 7.5% within a week. This marks the largest one-week drop since November of the previous year. This percentage decrease might seem small, but in the context of a mortgage, it can equate to substantial savings for homeowners over the life of the loan.

The Catalyst for Change: The Impact of the Federal Reserve’s Actions

The Federal Reserve’s decisions have a direct influence on the financial market, including the mortgage industry. In this case, a crucial factor contributing to this decrease in mortgage rates was the Federal Reserve’s decision to maintain the current interest rates, providing a respite from the previously rising rates. Furthermore, slower than expected job growth has led analysts to anticipate the Federal Reserve holding rates steady for the foreseeable future.

The Reaction from Homebuyers: A Surge in Mortgage Applications

This decrease in mortgage rates has sparked a response from homebuyers. As financing becomes cheaper, more potential homeowners are taking advantage of this opportunity. This trend is reflected in the 3% week-over-week increase in new mortgage applications reported by banks. However, it’s important to note that despite this increase, applications remain 18% lower than the previous year’s levels, indicative of the ongoing affordability challenges in the housing market.

The Impact on the Housing Market

While lower mortgage rates may seem like a boon for homebuyers, they present a double-edged sword. As more buyers enter the market, competition for the limited supply of homes increases, potentially driving up home prices. This is particularly concerning given that the housing market has already been grappling with an inventory shortage, primarily due to homeowners who locked in historically low mortgage rates during the pandemic and are now unwilling to sell.

The Effect on Home Affordability

The reduction in mortgage rates comes at a time when home affordability is reaching new levels of concern. While the median price of a home remained relatively stable compared to last year, the higher mortgage rates over the past few months have significantly increased the cost of financing a home purchase. This increase in monthly costs has led to a required annual household income increase for purchasing a median-priced home, further exacerbating affordability issues.

The Future Outlook for Mortgage Rates

While the recent drop in mortgage rates offers some relief to homebuyers, the future outlook remains uncertain. Some experts predict that while rates may continue to fall in 2024, they’re unlikely to return to the historically low levels seen during the pandemic. As a result, prospective homebuyers can expect rates to settle at above 6% in the new era of mortgage rates.

The Implications for Banks

The fluctuation in mortgage rates has significant implications for banks and other lending institutions. With the recent decrease in rates, the lending market has seen a slight uptick. However, this may not be a long-term solution to the stagnant lending market, as the high cost of living continues to put a strain on consumers. Unless there is a significant decrease in mortgage rates, the housing market is likely to remain stagnant, impacting banks’ lending activity.

The Role of Treasury Yields

Treasury yields play a critical role in influencing mortgage rates. When Treasury yields increase, mortgage rates usually follow suit, and vice versa. The recent drop in mortgage rates comes in tandem with the decline in Treasury yields, further emphasizing their interconnected relationship. However, it remains to be seen whether this trend will continue, as long-term Treasury yields have significantly fallen off their highs after the Federal Reserve’s decision not to raise rates.

The Challenge of Inventory Shortage

The inventory shortage in the housing market presents a significant challenge. With a significant percentage of homeowners locked into lower rates, the refinancing market for banks is unlikely to recover soon. Further, the limited supply of homes may not be able to meet the increase in buyer interest, potentially leading to a rise in home prices and exacerbating affordability issues.

The Influence on Consumer Behaviour

The decline in mortgage rates influences consumer behaviour in the housing market. Many potential buyers who had previously paused their home search due to rising rates and low inventory are now re-entering the market. However, others are adopting a wait-and-see approach, hoping for lower rates and increased inventory in the future.


The recent decrease in mortgage rates presents both opportunities and challenges for homebuyers and the housing market at large. While lower rates may encourage more potential buyers to enter the market, the limited home inventory and high cost of living continue to pose significant challenges. As we move forward, it will be crucial to monitor these trends and their impact on the housing market.