If you know what goes on at each stage of construction, you can better monitor your progress and avoid any delays. Here, we break down what to anticipate during the construction process.
When tackling a self-build, it is helpful to have a thorough understanding of each phase of the construction process, whether you plan to manage the build yourself or will be passing the baton to another team member.
If you know what to expect at each step of the construction process, you’ll be better equipped to communicate with the many tradespeople involved and enjoy the work as a whole.
This is especially important if you will be serving as your own project manager and/or performing some of the work yourself, as you will need to schedule the arrival of materials and the hiring of tradespeople to ensure a timely and successful construction.
How to Construct a Home: An Overview
Both the pre- and post-weather-tight phases of a home’s development are essential to its final result (this is also called “getting a house to shell”).
When the walls, roof, windows, and doors are all in, as well as being fully locked, and the home looks complete from the outside, we say that it is weathertight (often also termed “watertight”).
All the hard work is done, and genuine progress can be observed virtually every day, making weatherproofing a house the most exciting aspect of the process for amateurs. Most contractors estimate that it takes anywhere from three to six months to seal up a house properly, depending on its size and complexity.
Property owners entrust exterior work to specialized contractors, such as Hardie Boys. For instance, they hire separate contractors to install soffits, trims, solar roofing systems, etc. Most specialized contractors can handle general work and have expertise in specific construction jobs. Determining the specialization of a contractor is crucial to ensuring the highest quality of work.
When the outside of a house is complete, the interior can be renovated. The plasterers, for example, can’t work while the basic electrics are being installed, so coordinating their schedules can be a challenge and add some extra time to the building process.
Breaking ground (the traditional beginning of a project, when trenches are built for the foundations) and moving into a new home often take between six and twelve months. Some firms specialising in timber frame packages boast that the entire process may be completed in as little as six months. It can take up to three years for many do-it-yourselfers.
The schedule differs greatly depending on the method used to complete the project; however, the information provided below will give you a general idea of what to expect at each stage, from ground-breaking to final approval.
- CIVIL WORK INVOLVED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A HOUSE
Assuming you have already purchased your land and completed all necessary planning and preparation, the first stage in building a house is to get the site ready. Cleaning up the area and getting it ready for your craftsmen entails more than just removing trash and plants.
Here are some examples of work that has to be done in preparation for construction:
- The job of groundworkers is to build roads to the construction site.
- Strip the soil of its vegetable-growing nutrients and stack the debris removed from the area.
- Prepare a site shack by stocking it with blueprints and security gear.
- Install a lavatory
- must be placed in a secure lock-up/truck container (rented or bought).
- The stopcock on the perimeter will be connected to the supply by the water board.
- The water standpipe will be hooked up by a plumber.
- Prior to any construction beginning, the surveyor lays out the building’s footprint on the cleared site and translates those lines into profiles.
- Bricks and blocks should be brought in and stacked out of the way.
- Place the cement bin and sand pile near the mixing station.
- construction of a house beginning with the laying of the foundations
The next step is to lay the groundwork. One of the largest unknowns in a self-build project is how much it will cost to build the foundations, so determining the best foundation system as soon as possible is crucial for keeping costs and timelines under control.
When the site is prepared and the best cost-effective option has been determined (often through a geotechnical investigation, which entails digging or boring trial holes around the site of a proposed new structure), the foundations can be placed.
Here are the duties for this step:
- Foundations are dug by groundworkers.
- Do not start until building inspection and warranty officials provide their stamp of approval.
- Set up the trenches with any necessary reinforcing bars, netting, or cages.
- If necessary, slide membranes or other compressible materials should be positioned inside the trenches.
- Install conduits to allow utilities access to the building via the subfloor.
- If there are any stairs in the foundation, a foot scaffold should be set up along with a shutter.
- Place and level a foundation of concrete.
- Convince the building and warranty inspectors that it’s safe to move forward.
- In order to prevent water damage, bricklayers use foundation blockwork.
- Replace standard vents with angled ones.
- Put in lintels that drain water away from the house
- Lean-mix concrete should be used to fill up any holes until they are flush with the exterior ground.
- After that, connect any radon membranes or barriers to the damp-proof courses you just laid.
- CONSTRUCTING THE OVERHEAD RAILINGS OF A HOUSE
It’s always thrilling when work begins on the roof of a new home. Know when you’ll need a building inspector’s approval and plan accordingly.
- The landscaping crew will build service trenches and run pipes and ducts to the new stopcock/meter positions.
- Transport and set concrete floor beams in each storage area.
- Prior to the oversite, put in drain and ventilation pipes.
- Put blocks in between the floor joists.
- Install vent grilles and course blocks.
- Grouting should be brushed.
- Arrange for building control/warranty inspection
- Get started on the roof right away.
- Put in draughts of new openings like doors and windows.
- In order to use the scaffolding for the first time, it must be raised.
Proceed with the Construction of the Roof Overhead
- Work on the chimneys and other upper-story brick and blockwork continues.
- Set up and level lintels, particularly those over fireplaces.
- Flue liners should be installed before continuing with the project.
- Gas and electricity metre boxes are typically installed during construction.
- In the electrical metre box, an electrician will set up a temporary consumer unit.
- The service provider is responsible for doing their tasks up to the border.
- Water supply will be redirected by the plumber to the stopcock location.
- Electricity providers will set up the necessary metres and connections.
- There must be a second scaffolding hoist.
- First-floor beams must be lifted and placed using a crane in each bay (if necessary).
- Clip the battens of the wallboard into place.
- Place fill bricks in the gaps.
- Grouting should be brushed.
Progress Towards the Wallplate
- Until the wallplate is up, construction on the superstructure must continue.
- It will be necessary to use a third and subsequently a fourth scaffolding level.
- Proprietary wallplate straps must be used to wrap, bed, and secure the wallplate.
- The need for a warranty examination might arise at times.
- The end trusses will serve as templates for the carpenters to construct the rest of the structure.
- Don’t stop until you’ve finished the chimney and gable ends.
- The gable ends require several levels of scaffolding.
- The chimney will have new lead flashing, tray, and skirt installation from the plumber.
- The flashing skirts and vent pipes that protrude through the roof will be installed by a plumber.
- Chimney cap and crowning brickworkers
- Chimney flashings will be pointed by the bricklayers.
- Building a Roof for a Home
After the roof is installed on a house, the structure becomes much more obvious.
- Roof trusses will be lifted into place by carpenters, who will then fasten them to the ceiling and walls.
- Every binding and bracing must be fastened at a node.
- Valleys will be laid out with boards.
- Now is the time to build dormers.
- Fascia and soffit, along with any ventilation grilles or strips, must be installed as a unit.
- The need for a warranty examination might arise at times.
- At this time, you should also put in any rooftop tanks you plan to use.
Putting on a Roof When Constructing a Home.
- To cover the edges, roofers begin cutting and installing underlayment.
- Felt and batten for the roof
- Slates and tiles to be installed
- It’s time to lay and bed the ridge and hip tiles.
- Tiling or laying fibreglass or lead in valleys.
- A plumber will need to tone down the flashings and skirtings.
- contractors who can paint or stain fascia, soffits, and barges.
After the roof is in place, interior and exterior work such as window joinery and stud wall partitioning may begin.
- Gutter repair plumbers
- External joinery window suppliers
- Those skilled in the art of plastering should be enlisted to complete any outside rendering.
- Construction scaffolding is dismantled
- Downspouts and their associated drainage connections will be installed by plumbers.
- For the sake of appearances
- The initial step in fixing anything involves carpenters installing door jambs, constructing wall studs, and installing window boards.
- Carpenters to replace damaged plasterboard noggins and conceal ventilation ducts.
- To coordinate the efforts of the plumber and carpenter assigned to the construction of the rooftop stands.
- A carpenter has been hired to fix the sagging loft trap.
- BUILDING A HOUSE, FIRST PHASE OF FIXES
At this stage, the conduits for electricity and water are installed. Electrical and plumbing services are crucial to properly installing electrical and plumbing fixtures. The quality of materials and installation determines the longevity of the home’s electrical and plumbing systems. Below are the things included in the first phase of electrical and water fixes.
- plumbers to install a damp-proof course and a flooring membrane, including taping all connections and sealing insulation.
- Loops of UFH (underfloor heating) will be installed.
- Hot and cold water and sewage first-fix plumbing must be laid within designated areas of each floor.
- Natural gas piping has been installed within the building.
- The UFH piping must be run to the manifolds and the outlets.
- Please arrange for a business to pump in and install a level floor screed, then depart for three days.
- Screed must be covered with a protective layer of hardboard or cardboard.
- The electrician is responsible for the installation of all backplates and carcass wiring for electrical and lighting circuits.
- where to put the consumer unit (s)
- External light fixtures are wired in.
- The correct positions must be set up for the TV aerials and satellite connections.
- Installation of phone jacks and cables is required at strategic points inside the building.
- To be slaughtered: home automation, smart TVs, and security systems
- OUTSIDE WORKS AND DRAINS
The focus shifts to the interiors at this point. Drylining lines the ceilings and walls with gypsum-based boards attached to a frame or fixed to a substrate. It can be used on uneven surfaces, brick, and internal stud walls. Moreover, the dry lining must be taped at board joints and abutments to internal walls and ceilings.
- Drainage ditches will be dug by the ground crew.
- Pea shingle is used to backfill the trenches to a depth of 150 mm.
- The necessary drops have drains constructed.
- Manholes composed of brick or concrete sections are built, or prefabricated manholes, rodding eyes, and gullies are installed in the runs.
- The building inspector must authorise all drains.
- Pea shingle-clogged drains that sag in the middle
- Trenches dug for drainage purposes are filled in.
- Approved contractors will perform roadwork necessary to connect to the main sewer.
- Carpenter must finish boxings and noggings before plasterer may begin work.
- Workers on the ground level will start the construction of driveways and sidewalks.
- To build chimneys and hearths, you need a bricklayer.
- Installing and connecting a gas metre
- All concerns involving cross-bonding and earthing will be addressed jointly by plumbers and electricians.
- FRAMING THE CEILING/DRY LINING
The focus shifts to the interiors at this point.
- The carpenter’s major assignment is to fit and cover the main staircase.
- Professionals who work with drywall or plaster tack ceilings.
- Plasterboard is attached in dabs and dots to all exterior and blockwork walls.
- Plasterboard is nailed onto all studwork walls and pipe boxings.
- The scrim tape and joint filler have been applied to every joint and angle.
- Mesh is used to join all differential material abutments.
- The use of mastic for both internal and exterior sealing is required for any woodwork.
- Skim coating all walls and ceilings by dryliners and plasterers.
- All architraves and skirting will have their backs painted or treated by the decorator.
- Insulation for the roof must be completely put in.
SECOND CARPENTRY REPAIR
In accordance with the plan, finishing touches like architraves, skirting, and flooring may now be installed.
- Door frames are installed by carpenters.
- The architrave and skirting will be installed by carpenters.
- The balustrading, handrails, and linen cabinet shelves must be installed.
- Conformity of a Ladder and Loft Door
- Carpenters or timber floor professionals are required to lay and seal timber flooring.
- Professional tile setters will install fireproof ceramic floor tiles.
- Furniture installers and manufacturers specialising in custom bedroom and bathroom units.
- Cabinetry for the kitchen will be installed.
Second-Stage Electrical and Plumbing Work
In the second phase of repair, the wiring and connections are made.
- Connected devices and wires to the power supply
- Putting in place the boiler includes plumbing and electrical connections.
- All sink units need to be plumbed, earthed, and cross-bonded.
- Plumbing and installation of all sanitary fixtures is required.
- The task at hand is to install and connect plumbing for radiators and towel rails.
- Loops of the subfloor heating system will be wired into the manifolds.
- All plumbing fixtures (toilets, sinks, radiators, etc.) must have their cross bonding and earthing checked by an electrician.
- It is necessary to wire the boiler, as well as the control system and individual thermostats.
- The boiler will be ignited and commissioned with the aid of a plumber and an electrician.
- There must be a thorough flushing and pressure testing of all pipes and connections.
- The heating system is to be left in a “test” mode.
If you find yourself over budget at the conclusion of a construction project, taking on these minor chores is a smart idea. Never accept work that is outside your skill set; else, you may have to pay more to have a specialist address the problem.
- After measuring and marking the work areas, new countertops may be installed.
- Any dirt or dust that has accumulated within the home must be taken outdoors.
- decorators to spot and repair flaws in the wall such as holes, scuffs, and rough spots
- The interior wood should be sanded or wire wooled to a smooth finish.
- Use mist and two coats of emulsion to paint all walls and ceilings.
- Internal timber that has been knotted, painted, primed, undercoated, and glazed, or internal timber that has been stained with two coats.
- Kitchen remodeling contractors and bathroom tiling experts.
- Before tilers install the tiles on the walls or backsplash, the bathtubs must be filled with water to settle.
- Putting in a water metre
Some do-it-yourselfers take a breather before tackling the landscaping after the house is finished, especially if funds are limited.
It’s important to give serious thought to what you want and who will execute the work if you plan on landscaping at the same time as building a house because there may be some advantages to doing so.
- Landscapers or groundworkers who will level the area and set up
- stored topsoil will be delivered to the work site, and more can be brought in if needed.
- If you want to utilise the site hut as a garden shed, you’ll have to either move it or demolish it.
- Confidential site storage for disposal or return to renters
- Construction workers who will finish paving the driveway
- Installing the patio slabs
- Bricklayers needed for any dwarf or ornate walls.
- Flattening grassy areas so they can be seeded or turfed.
- Licensed professionals who can install bellmouths and kerbs in roads.
STEP 13: COMPLETING THE HOUSE
And now is the moment! There are still a few things to do before the big day…
- The entire house has to be scrubbed from top to bottom.
- We cleaned all the windows and removed the labels on the appliances.
- Cooking appliances should not be used until all polystyrene packing material has been removed.
- The washer and dryer must have their levelling bolts removed.
- All leftover rental equipment and the site bathroom will be made available for purchase.
- Every metre has to be read.
- The thermostat was set to run the central heating.
- link with a telecommunications provider
- Vendors specialising in the setup of television antennas and satellite dishes
- The snagging list has been reopened, and all trades have reported back to work on it.
- Carpets to be laid
- When construction is finished, the municipality will be alerted so that they may schedule a council tax assessment.
- One must get an Energy Performance Certificate and have it submitted to Building Control.
- A completion certificate is issued after a building has passed its final inspection.
- The concluding warranty examination and issuance by the warranty inspector
- Before the furniture arrives, make sure the floors are protected with tarps or other protective coverings.
- Replace your self-build site insurance with a standard homeowner’s coverage
The whole house construction process entails a systematic, well-planned approach. It requires careful planning, high-quality material selection, collaborative effort, and keen consideration of the best location, timing, space, and the homeowner’s budget requirements. Engineers, architects, and contractors work together to make the homeowner’s dream house come true, prioritizing safety, comfort, functionality, and overall house structure quality.
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